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Johnson & Johnson’s Vaccine

The CDC officially approved Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine on Feb. 28 for people 18 and older. CDC Director Rochelle P. Walensky, M.D., said the vaccine “has been shown to be safe and effective in preventing severe COVID-19 illness, hospitalization, and death.”

 Yesterday, Dr. Anthony Fauci, Chief Medical Advisor to President Joe Biden, was asked in an interview on Meet the Press about the efficacy of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine compared to the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines.

Dr. Fauci said the efficacy of the J & J vaccine “against severe disease is greater than 85%. And there have been no hospitalizations or deaths in multiple countries, even in countries that have multiple variants.”

He said the only way to compare the vaccines is to compare them “head-to-head, and they were not compared head-to-head.” He said the Pfizer and Moderna trials were conducted during an earlier time period when there were not as many variants in the community.

“All three of them are really quite good. And people should take the one that’s most available to them. If you go to a place and you have J & J and that’s the one that’s available now, I would take it. …  I would have no hesitancy whatsoever to take it.”

He said some companies are already conducting studies to determine the safety and efficacy of vaccines for children under the age of 12. “If you project realistically, when we’ll get enough data to be able to say that elementary school echildren will be able to be vaccinated, I would think that would be at the earliest, the end of the year, and very likely, the first quarter of 2022.

“But for the high school kids, it looks like sometime this fall. I’m not sure it’s exactly going to be on the first day that school opens, but pretty close to that,” he said. 

Risk of Community Spread

Both the CDC and IDPH recommend that communities assess the risk that COVID-19 will spread using two measures: 1) the total number of new COVID-19 cases per 100,000 people in the community (e.g., county) in the past seven days; and 2) the percentage of tests for COVID-19 that were returned positive in the last 7 days. [1, 2 and 3]

For total cases in the last 7 days per 100,000 people, IDPH uses a target of 50 cases. CDC says between 10 and 49 cases represents a “moderate” risk of transmission.

For test positivity in the last 7 days, IDPH uses a target of 5%. CDC says between 5% and 7.9% represents a “moderate” risk of transmission.

Two of the charts in the above chart box track these two measures for Evanston, Suburban Cook County, Chicago and the State. [4] The third chart shows the trend of new cases in the State.

Evanston – COVID

The City reported 1 new COVID-19 case of an Evanston resident today, compared to 3 yesterday and 1 on Saturday.

The average number of new cases per day in the last seven days is 7.7, down from the seven-day average of 7.9 on Feb. 22. For purposes of comparison, on Oct. 12, the seven-day average was 5.6.

There has been a total of 3,921 COVID-19 cases of Evanston residents during the pandemic, 178 of which are active.  

In the last seven days, there was a total of 44 new COVID-19 cases of Evanstonians, 16 of which occurred in congregate care settings. That equates to about 58 new cases per 100,000 people in the seven-day period.

The case positivity rate over the last seven days is 1.9%. No Evanstonian died due to COVID-19 in the last 24 hours. The number of deaths due to COVID-19 remains at 111.    

Impact of Northwestern University. Northwestern University has posted data on its website reporting that between Feb. 22 and Feb. 28 there were 55 new confirmed COVID-19 cases of faculty, staff, and students.  The number includes those who live outside of Evanston. The City says it does not know how many of these cases are people who live in Evanston. [5]

Illinois – COVID

 In the State, there were 1,143 new COVID-19 cases reported today, down from 1,249 yesterday and 1,780 on Saturday.

Statewide, the average number of new cases per day in the last seven days is 1,740. The seven-day average one week ago, on Feb. 22, was 1,725, so today’s number is up by 15 cases. After significant declines almost every day for about six weeks, the seven-day average seems to be leveling off.

Today’s seven-day average is down from an all-time high of 12,380 on Nov. 17. An accompanying chart shows the trend.

In the seven days ending March 1, the number of new cases per 100,000 people in the State was 96, up slightly from 95 one week ago.

The seven-day case positivity rate for the State today is 2.4% and the test positivity rate is 2.7%.

On a Statewide basis, the number of hospitalizations due to COVID-19 was 1,288 as of midnight on Feb. 28. This is down from an all-time high of 6,171 on Nov. 23.

The number of patients using ICU beds is 308, down from 1,195 on Dec. 1. The number of patients on ventilators is 148, down from 724 on Dec. 1.

On a Statewide basis, there were 20 deaths due to COVID-19 in the last 24 hours, which brings the total to 20,536.

For the last seven days, the numbers of deaths in the State are 27, 44, 32, 55, 34, 22, and 20 today. The seven-day average is 33.

Vaccinations in the State

A total of 3,183,805 doses of vaccine have been delivered to providers in Illinois, including Chicago and long-term care facilities. IDPH is currently reporting that a total of 2,756,831 doses of vaccines have been administered.


1/ On Feb. 12, the CDC issued a “K-12 School Operational Strategy.” As part of that strategy, the report says, “CDC recommends the use of two measures of community burden to determine the level of risk of transmission: 1) the total number of new cases per 100,000 persons in the past 7 days; and 2) the percentage of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), including RT-PCR tests that are positive during the last 7 days. The two measures of community burden should be used to assess the incidence and spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the surrounding community (e.g., county) and not in the schools themselves.” The CDC provides a chart to assess whether the risk of transmission is low, moderate, substantial, or high. The CDC recommends different types of mitigations depending on the risk level. If the two indicators suggest different levels of risk, the mitigations recommended in the higher level of risk should be implemented, says CDC. The table below, reprinted from CDC’s report, provides CDC’s Indicators and Thresholds for Community Transmission of COVID-219.

 2/ Number of Cases per 100,000 Population. On July 1, a network of research, policy and public health experts convened by Harvard’s Global Health Institute and Edmond J. Safra Center published a Key Metrics for COVID Suppression framework that provides guidance to policy makers and the public on how to target and suppress COVID-19 more effectively across the nation. The targets for new COVID-19 cases per 100,000 people are as follows (these are converted from cases per day to cases per week): a) less than 7 cases: “on track for containment;” b) 7 to 63 cases: “community spread,” rigorous test and trace program advised; c) 70 to 168 cases: “accelerated spread,” stay-at-home orders and/or rigorous test and trace programs advised; and d) 169+: ”tipping point,” stay-at-home orders necessary.  The article is available here:

IDPH provides these categories and ratings: 1) “minimal” – fewer than 50 cases per 100,000 in a week; 2) “moderate” – between 50 and 100 cases per week; and 3) “substantial” more than 100 cases per 100,000 in a week.  In its Metrics for School Determination of Community Spread, IDPH says the “target” is 50 cases per week per 100,000 people.

3/ The Test Positivity Rate. In addition, on May 26, Johns Hopkins University & Medicine Coronavirus Resource Center said on its website that “the World Health Organization (WHO) advised governments [on May 15] that before reopening, rates of positivity in testing (i.e., out of all tests conducted, how many came back positive for COVID-19) should remain at 5% or lower for at least 14 days.”  Link:

The Harvard Global Health Institute (HGHI) says, “A network of research, policy, and public health organizations convened by Harvard and MIT called the TTSI Collaborative has agreed on a 3% test positive rate or below as a key indicator of progress towards suppression level testing.”

IDPH says the test positivity target is 5% or less. IDPH provides these categories and ratings: 1) “Minimal” – test positivity rate is equal to or less than 5%: 2) “Moderate” – test positivity rate is between 5% and 8%; and 3) “Substantial” – test positivity rate is over 8%. In its Metrics for School Determination of Community Spread, IDPH says the target is 5%.

4/ Calculations. The RoundTable calculates the number of cases per 100,000 using case data provided by IDPH and assuming that the population of Suburban Cook County is 2.469 million, that the population of Chicago is 2.710 million, and that the population of Illinois is 12.671 million.

5/ Northwestern University COVID-19 Cases. Ike C. Ogbo, Director of Evanston’s Health & Human Services Department, told the RoundTable that the COVID-19 cases reported by the City include cases of faculty, staff, and students attending Northwestern University who live in Evanston. The RoundTable asked the City in an FOIA Request to provide the number of NU students who tested positive for COVID-19 and who live in Evanston. The City refused to provide the data. On Oct. 26, the RoundTable appealed the City’s decision to the Public Access Counselor of the Attorney General’s Office. On Nov. 13, the City filed a response claiming it does not have any records showing the number of NU students who tested positive for COVID-19 and who live in Evanston.

The RoundTable has asked Northwestern University on several occasions to provide information breaking out the number of new COVID-19 cases of its faculty, staff and students by residency in Evanston. NU did not respond.